20 February 2017

When a GAP is not a GAP: ARHGAP11B, the mysterious human-specific gene

A truly human-specific gene, not merely a human-specific version of an animal gene or a mammal gene or a primate gene — that is something particularly interesting. Given that the human genome is 96% identical to that of our closest relatives (chimps and bonobos), and given that so much of those genomes is composed of mobile elements that are unlikely to end up being genes at all, I and perhaps others long thought that human-specific genes would be something pretty rare.

But there they are — genes by every definition, that code for protein and are expressed in human tissues, that are unique in humans. One of the most interesting is a gene that brings together some of my personal favorite topics in biology: brain development, cellular signaling systems, and of course evolution. The gene goes by the unfortunate "name" of ARHGAP11B.

I do consider ARHGAP11B to be a unique human gene, but its name betrays its evolutionary history and its membership in a family of genes, so it's not completely unique (specifics to come). That family is the family of GAPs, a group of proteins that were the focus of my postdoctoral research years ago. GAP stands for "GTPase-activating protein," and besides being a typical morsel of biochemical jargon, the phrase is a bit of an insult to the roles played by these proteins in cellular signaling systems.